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Specific Learning Disorder

(SLD)

We refer as a Specific Learning Disorder when we find an impairment in the child's ability to acquire and apply skills related to reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia and dysorthographia) and mathematical calculation (dyscalculia), in absence of an intellectual development disorder (average I.Q.).

The signs become apparent during preschool, but there are also early signs that might interfere with the developmental ability of the child to learn rhymes, to associate sounds with symbols and, we could also notice a late talking and confusion with language patterns.

The signs of a learning disorder that is related to maths include difficulties in calculation and solving maths problems involving reasoning. 

4 fundamental criteria are indicated for the diagnosis of SLD in the DSM-V:

 

1.Symptoms persist for over 6 months despite a targeted intervention:

  • Difficulty reading

  • Difficulty understanding what is read

  • Difficulty with spelling

  • Difficulty with written expression

  • Difficulty related to the understanding of number concepts

  • Difficulty with mathematical reasoning

 

​2. Academic skills are below average for age

3. Learning difficulties are fully manifested after the school period, where the demands exceed the present skills

4. There is no intellectual disability, visual and hearing problems, or emotional disturbance

 

 

THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE CHILD IS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION AND OCCUPIES A FIRST PLACE WHILE WE ARE DEVELOPING AN INTERVENTION PLAN.

SO, OUR APPROACH WILL AIM TO INCREASE THE CHILD STRENGTHS, BUT ALSO TO DEVELOP NEW INDIVIDUALISED LEARNING STRATEGIES.

COMORBIDITY WITH EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS INVOLVES AN ASSOCIATED INTERVENTION AIMED AT THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF THE INDIVIDUAL

 

 

Dyslexia refers to the Specific Reading Disorder, which concerns decoding, and also includes, in addition to the difficulties in the accuracy of reading words, the speed or fluency of reading and the difficulties in understanding the text.

 

How does it manifest itself?

  • Delayed early language development

  • Problems recognising the differences between similar sounds

  • The child will read aloud more slowly and imprecisely when considering age

 

 

Digraphia involves the control of the graphic aspects of handwriting, in the motor-executive moment of writing. It compromises the quality of the graphic aspect of the handwriting to the point of making it illegible and also affects the ability to write fluently.

 

How does it manifest itself?

  • Incorrect posture and grip

  • Too much pressure or too little pressure on the sheet

  • The writing does not follow the line or does not respect the margins

  • Letters of different sizes

  • Illegible letters

 

Dysorthographia refers to the specific disorder involving the correctness of writing, that is, the spelling as the ability to write by correctly representing the sounds and words of one's own language.

 

How does it manifest itself?

  • Replacement of similar letters

  • Addition or lack of letters

  • Inversion of letters within the word

  • Mistakes in copying words

  • Slowness, hesitation, and poverty in writing

Dyscalculia corresponds to the difficulty of learning mathematics: in more detail, dyscalculia involves the basal numerical intelligence and calculation ability.

How does it manifest itself?

  • Not being able to distinguish between major and minor symbols

  • Slowness in calculations

  • Difficulties in understanding the meaning of the numbers

  • Difficulties in counting down

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